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Peters 1 Jeffery N. Talbot 1 Jenifer Fahey 1 Jenifer O. Fahey 1 Jennifer F. Palmunen 1 Jeri A. Milstead 1 Jerome E. Kotecki 1 JoAnne M. Huppertz 1 Jon E. Esherick 1 Joseph Z. In one study, daily glutamine supplementation over the course of 6 weeks while practicing in a resistance training protocol did not affect body composition, muscular performance, or protein degradation compared to a placebo.
Unfortunately, glutamine sounds like a god on paper as it serves a number of biological roles, but according to Kevin Kuhn, a large number of studies were performed in vitro , rather than in vivo dealing with an actual living body, which both you and I are. They were randomly assigned to two groups. One group utilized glutamine while the other group was administered a placebo of maltodextrin. Each group performed an approximate microcycle 6 weeks of resistance training in classic hypertrophy training zones. After completion of the program, subjects were tested on various measures including 1rm Bench Press, 1rm Squat, peak knee torque, body composition utilizing a dexa scan, and muscle protein breakdown via 3-methylhystidine levels in the urine, a marker of breakdown.
Contrary to the in vitro studies, there were no significant differences between each group, strongly indicating that you should save your money and ditch glutamine if you are an athlete.
When we eat meat, eggs, and other animal sources of protein then there is no need to fret about fulfilling a complete amino acid profile. Plant based sources, on the other hand, lack one essential amino acid and need to be complemented by another source to deliver all amino acids. Therefore, grains match well with legumes, which are low in methionine but high in lysine. Real quick, I want to note that there is not a nutrition manual seeking to answer which diet is supreme to the other in terms of general health. With that being said, a vegan diet does seem plausible, although further investigation does seem to be warranted.
According to a study by Barr et. Vitamin B deficiency is a common area of concern for vegans and this specific vitamin may need to be supplemented.
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Adequate protein intake, although more difficult to come by perhaps for vegans vs. For example, a study from van Vliet, found that plant protein is typically less anabolic than animal protein for several reasons. Greater excretion rates, proposed digestibility issues and more. However, the author did state that several strategies could be used to improve the anabolic response of a protein based meal primarily derived from plants. Including a higher variety of plant based protein sources, supplementing the amino acids leucine, lysine, and methionine, and eating greater amounts of plant based protein sources.
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Iron and creatine are present in high levels with traditional meat sources. However, according to this particular study, there are two commodities may need to be monitored carefully in vegans to prevent the unwanted onset of symptoms which could impact athletic performance. Carbohydrate loading is a nutritional strategy that has been practice by mainly endurance athletes for decades and it works. When we decide remove or cut down on carbohydrates for an appreciable period of time, the enzymes that handle this nutrient are reduced in number by down-regulating or lowering their activity in the body.
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Once they are re-introduced back into the diet, our body will be ill-equipped to use and store carbohydrates and we may be left hungrier from an inability to handle and fill up our carbohydrate glycogen stores. Secondly these enzymes will compensate and up-regulate or increase their activity resulting in extra storage of carbohydrate sources above baseline levels. For everyone else, stabilize your carbohydrate intake over the long-term and you will be perfectly fine.
Also, make sure to keep your protein intake moderate to high. This will help fill you up and preserve muscle mass and supply some extra energy if necessary. These two thermogenics can help suppress appetite to a degree, and help you burn some extra calories each day which add up in the long run. In terms of priorities, put diet and nutrition as complementary and when you have these two areas dialed in then worry about your supplements to put the icing on the cake. Medium chain triacylglycerols deliver energy faster than conventional fat energy sources.
Fortunately, fat stores have a very high energy density 9 calories per single gram or calories per pound of fat. This means there is generally plenty to go around if the need arises during exercise, recovery, etc. The same cannot be said for carbohydrates and proteins though as their stores and pools are much smaller in comparison to fat. One study showed a decrease in P70S6K activity when fat was consumed post-workout.
P70S6K is a potent muscle building signaler in the body, so we better keep it happy and focus on protein, carbohydrates, and hydration instead. The issue of insulin sensitivity is real. So what happens that prevents glucose and consumed carbohydrates from entering muscle tissue in those that are susceptible? Well, for starters, there are two transporters called GLUT1 and GLUT4 which assist with the uptake of glucose into our cells, with the majority of uptake occurring from GLUT4 and its pathway, regardless of the type of cell type i.
Unfortunately, not as much research has been conducted on muscle cells versus fat cells for different reasons, so keep this in mind. Nonetheless, the transporters need to re-locate to the surface of the cell in order to bring glucose into the cell effectively. Supposedly, the pathway in which the transporters travel is poorly designed in the cell and they tend to reside deep in the cell and are called out when insulin arrives.
For example, syntaxin 4 is a gene that is responsible for translocating or relocating GLUT4 to the surface of the cell. Ironically, GLUT4 tends to dock at site that involves a channel that carries less syntaxin 4 potentially adding to the possibility of resistance.